Hardware and Software Aspect of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: Domestic and Regional Challenges


  • Sohail Naseer Ms Finance, Air University School of Management, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Anwar Ul Haq MS Management Sciences, Faculty of Management Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Daniyal Ahmad School of Communication Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Rizwan Aziz MS Management Sciences, Department of Public Administration, UAJ&K, AJK, Pakistan


The launch of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is seen as a golden opportunity for Pakistan’s economy and development sector. The overall idea behind Chinese investment in the several economic corridors along the route of Belt Road Initiative (BRI) and related infrastructure development projects is to create more opportunities for trade, economic interdependence, and integration with different regional actors. However, the various challenges associated with such megaprojects cannot be ignored. The paper, therefore, reviews the challenges faced by CPEC under two different lenses. The first lens deals with the types of challenges i.e., hardware (quality of infrastructure and logistics network) and the second lens view software (policy and regulatory framework) it deals with the levels at which challenges are being confronted i.e., domestic, and regional. The paper builds its rationale on the theoretical paradigm of Surplus Recycling Mechanism (SRM) and inclusive and extractive institutions.  The findings of the paper suggest that Pakistan is lagging in the effective development of both hardware and software aspects, which pose some serious challenges for the successful implementation of CPEC. If Pakistan desires to extract maximum benefit from the project, without compromising on the principles of its national interest, security, and sovereignty, then it needs to devise an action plan to address its internal flaws by bridging the hardware and software gap and putting in place an inclusive institution and a strong national security infrastructure to minimize the chances of external threats.

Key Words: CPEC, Hardware, Software, Infrastructure, Policy, Security, Pakistan





How to Cite

Sohail Naseer, Anwar Ul Haq, Muhammad Daniyal Ahmad, & Rizwan Aziz. (2024). Hardware and Software Aspect of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: Domestic and Regional Challenges. Journal of Business and Management Research, 3(1), 524–542. Retrieved from https://jbmr.com.pk/index.php/Journal/article/view/145